School of war
by Jean-François Berger
The IIHL'courses on the law
of armed conflict gather military personnel of every nationality.
Each year, soldiers from all over the world go back to school.
The place is San Remo, on the Italian coast; the subject, the
law of war. This unique seat of learning has just celebrated
its 30th birthday and it is still as busy as ever.
Pearl of the Riviera dei Fiori, San Remo is a fashionable,
if a touch faded, garden-city overlooking the sea and basking
in an average of 3,000 hours of sunshine a year. A stone's
throw from the beaches of fine sand rises the unmistakable
white bulk of the Casino. It is reached by the Corso dell'Imperatrice,
named after the Tsarina of Russia, Maria Alexandrovna, who
in 1874 donated the palm trees which line the esplanade. On
the fringe of the town clusters a group of villas in neo-renaissance
style - art nouveau or just plain kitsch - interspersed with
tropical vegetation. Among them is Villa Nobel, historic seat
of the Institute of International Humanitarian Law (IIHL),
and Villa Ormond, which houses the classrooms.
The institute was founded in 1970 by a group of lawyers and
diplomats. Its initial purpose was to provide a place for
government experts to discuss sensitive issues off the record
and to prepare the ground for future international negotiations.
Thus, between 1974 and 1977, "the leading figures of international
relations met in San Remo to lay the foundations for what
were to become the Protocols additional to the Geneva Conventions,"
recalls Jacques Meurant, a member of the IIHL from the very
beginning. Once adopted, however, these legal instruments
are of little use if they are not made accessible, and above
all understandable, to the people for whom they are mainly
intended, i.e., soldiers.
With this in mind, the institute established an educational
wing to train military personnel in the application of the
rules of humanitarian law. "The greatest challenge is to convince
a commander that the law is not an obstacle to military action,
but rather it canbe an advantage," explains Colonel Garraway,
formerly legal advisor to the British army during the Gulf
war and currently one of the institute's instructors. To meet
this challenge, the educators from the military department
of the IIHL have set up a programme of courses and seminars,
which has already seen some 3,000 participants from 160 countries
pass through its doors. The jewel in the crown is the international
military course on the law of armed conflict. Devised more
than 20 years ago by Colonel de Mulinen, at the time an ICRC
delegate, the course is in its 83rd edition and is held with
ritual regularity at Villa Ormond. Given the present context,
heavy emphasis is placed on multinational peacekeeping operations.
The teaching provided in San Remo aims to be universal. To
achieve this, the IIHL relies on the quality and diversity
of its network of instructors and experts. According to Jovan
Patrnojic, president of the institute and founder member,
"the most important requirement is to translate humanitarian
law into military language".
For this reason, the courses are conducted by officers, most
of whom are provided by states from the northern hemisphere,
and are primarily held in English, French and Spanish, and
occasionally in Portuguese, Russian and Arabic. In a sign
of the times, a Chinese instructor will shortly be joining
the pool of instructors.
Recently, the IIHL has developed new teaching modules designed
for military doctors and directors ofarmy training programmes.
Stefania Baldini, secretary-general of the institute, believes
that the creation of more specialized tools is a positive
step, but "it would be best to consolidate the pedagogical
framework for a while", to avoid getting carried away.
For its part, the ICRC is playing an important support role.
Upstream, it helps with the recruitment of participants for
the military courses, picked mostly from among its contacts
in the field. It also endeavours to enhance the benefits of
the centralized courses, by organizing national and regionalcourses
in the countries from which the soldiers trained in San Remo
come. "As a platform for dialogue, San Remo is unrivalled,"
says Patrick Brugger, head of the ICRC's armed forces unit.
"That is why our partnership with the institute, which is
based on complementarity, must remain strong."
Villa Alfred Nobel, historic seat of the
San Remo Institute.
The San Remo Institute plays
host to personalities from all over the world. Here, representatives
of the Korean Red Cross (South Korea) receive an award for
efforts to reunite separated Korean families; presiding over
the ceremony are Stefania Baldini and Jovan Patrnojic, secretary
general and president of the institute respectively.
The raison d'être of the institute is not restricted to the
conduct of soldiers on the battlefield, however. The protection
of refugees also figures on the agenda, essentially through
courses on international refugee law designed for government
officials and NGOs and organized with the support of the United
Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the Swiss
Federal Office for Refugees.
In addition, one of the stated ambitions of the IIHL is to
be a forum for discussion open to anyone involved in humanitarian
action. Debate on the principal issues of humanitarian concern
is still one of the strong attractions of the institute. They
can take the form of round-table discussions on such topics
as the Kosovo experience, internal conflicts and humanitarian
action versus the sovereignty of states. But given the proliferation
of meetings of this kind, there is a need to be especially
dynamic in order to be effective in this area. For, even though
many of the topics covered by the representatives of governments,
the UN and the Red Cross are extremely pertinent - for example,
the interdependence of human rights and humanitarian law -
the results do not always come up to expectations. At best,
the expert debates enable participants to test out new ideas
and to get a feeling for the different perceptions and interests
of the various stake-holders in today's environment, in particular
with regard to so-called "humanitarian interventions". At
worst, the discussions have a tendency to just go around in
Indeed, one of the underlying causes of this can be attributed
to the "ageing" of the institute. "We have to break out of
the closed circle of experts and be careful not to become
a retired gentlemen's club," explains Stefania Baldini. The
statement is certainly clear-sighted, but how do you avoid
such a pitfall? One way of revitalizing the institute that
is currently being explored is to focus more on research and
internships. According to Yves Sandoz, representative of the
ICRC and president of the institute's Academic Committee,
"We need to identify serious topics for research, such as
that carried out a few years ago on war at sea." The protection
of victims of internal conflicts will clearly be one of the
key themes for the institute to address in the future.
An essential task
All these activities have their price, of course: US$ 800,000
in 2000, which is far from secured in advance. The military
courses take up the lion's share and are only partially covered
by the registration fees; the rest is made up by grants. In
this regard, the support provided by some Western governments,
by the commune of San Remo and the province of Imperia, as
well as by the ICRC, is essential. In addition, there are
private donations and contributions from National Societies,
beginning with the Italian Red Cross. According to its forceful
president, Mariapia Garavaglia, who is also vice-president
of the Federation, "The spirit of San Remo is an inspiration
for National Societies, which should lead to closer cooperation
with the institute." Ultimately, what is lacking today is
proper fund-raising, which can rely on a variety of funding
sources, including the private sector and foundations. In
this respect, the liaison office in Geneva - recently reinforced
with the support of the Swiss authorities - should certainly
help to overcome this deficiency.
Thirty years is without doubt a worthy anniversary. The pioneering
activities of the institute over this period are the best
proof of that. But what about its future prospects? Faced
with a growing demand for more specialization, the institute's
management is aware of the dangers of overdiversifying. They
are nonetheless unanimous in wanting to continue to put the
main emphasis on training military personnel and on reaffirming
the value of humanitarian law. And what is the impact? As
Colonel Garraway says, "San Remo is a drip-by-drip process."
His colleague, Major Clive Whitwham, puts it another way:
"San Remo plays a small but vital part in spreading humanity
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