A turning point
6th Pan African Conference of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
in Algiers in September 2004 was seen as a turning point.
HIV/AIDS is still cutting Africans down in their prime in
huge numbers. But there are some grounds for optimism, including
belated access to antiretroviral drug therapy.
Mhlongo children, Dumisani, Busisiwe and Sobondo, are almost
certainly among Africa’s millions of AIDS orphans. But
if their mother and father — members of the continent’s
‘missing generation’ — knew for sure it
was AIDS that was killing them, they never confirmed it to
the children’s elderly grandparents.
“Their father died in 2000 and their mother passed
on later the same year,” says their grandmother Takazile
Mhlongo, 73, who is convinced the parents died of AIDS-related
illnesses. “We cannot work any more,” she says.
“We cannot meet the needs of these children. We were
relying on their parents for our own security.”
This story, from the village of Ndindima in Richard’s
Bay, South Africa, is repeated countless times across Africa.
In late afternoon the Mhlongo children trek home from as
productive a day at school as they can manage after, yet again,
having had no breakfast. On some days there will be the compensation
of a meal of maize porridge with vegetables or beans; on others,
they will go to bed hungry.
The family’s crops have failed because of poor rainfall,
and now they rely on a vegetable garden supported by the South
African Red Cross Society’s home-care programme.
UNAIDS last year estimated that more than 25 million people
are living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa — nearly
80 per cent of the world’s HIV total. Some 10 per cent
of Africa’s entire population — 90 million people
— could be HIV-positive in 20 years time, the United
Nations (UN) has warned.
HIV/AIDS has devastated the most productive groups in society,
and has significantly eroded food security as
agricultural output has fallen. This, combined with locust
invasions, drought and failed government policies, left millions
of African households dependent on food aid.
“Our major concern as a continent has been to break
the symbiotic link between HIV/AIDS and food insecurity,”
says Emma Kundishora, the secretary general of the Zimbabwe
Red Cross Society. “Serious efforts havebeen made, but
a lot of work remains to be done.” In the year since
the Algiers conference, she says more National
Societies integrated food security with other programmes such
as HIV/AIDS and disaster management “to address the
key issues holistically”.
An Ethiopian volunteer caregiver, Yshi Jashaker,
shows a handful of free antiretrovirals given to HIV/AIDS
©GIANLUIGI GUERCIA / AFP
A few more people in Africa, if only a very few of those
who could benefit from them, are now receiving antiretroviral
In June, a joint report by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization
(WHO) said the pace of ART was “continuing
to accelerate” in developing countries, but bottlenecks
persisted. “In sub-Saharan Africa,” the agencies
added, “the region most severely affected by HIV, approximately
500,000 people are currently receiving ART — more than
triple the number of people on ART in June 2004.”
The Namibia Red Cross distributes food parcels to people
on ART in Caprivi, 1,500 kilometres north-west of the Mhlongo
children’s village and geographically at the epicentre
of the southern African AIDS crisis. Says Secretary-General
Razia Essack-Kauaria: “We have seen a large number of
our clients regaining their health and working again for their
families. Children who would have been orphans today now have
the chance to enjoy parental care for years to come.”
The Algiers conference agreed more effort should be directed
towards the key objectives of reducing food insecurity, HIV/AIDS,
and sickness and death in vulnerable populations. African
National Societies resolved to pursue these objectives “with
renewed commitment and vigour”, says Kundishora, who
is also a member of the Pan-African Coordinating Team (PACT).
“Since Algiers, we’ve noticed a great improvement
in service delivery by many African National Societies,”
Between Algiers and the previous meeting in Ouagadougou
in 2000, virtually all National Societies in Africa developed
HIV/AIDS programmes of one kind or another.
The Baphalali Swaziland Red Cross Society food security
project (see box) in Sigombeni, where the National Society
has one of its rural clinics, has involved new thinking on
how communities can benefit from integrated programming. Established
Swaziland food security projects include small-scale poultry
farms and kitchen gardens, and two communal food security
projects have now been set up alongside the Red Cross clinic,
which offers HIV testing and ART.
New figures released by the health ministry this year show
that nearly one-third of Swazi teenagers aged 15 and over
are HIV-positive. For pregnant women, the figure is 42 per
cent — believed to be the highest HIV infection rate
in the world.
In Algiers, African National Societies again recognized
that the way to reduce vulnerability is through boosting community
fruit trees, beehives
“We do not want to reduce people to passive beneficiaries,
but empower them,” said Asha Mohammed, deputy secretarygeneral
of the Kenya Red Cross Society and PACT chairman. “We
are training farmers to improve food security. Income-generating
projects have been supported through the same initiative.”
The Red Cross provides goats for milk, fruit-tree seedlings
The Algiers conference embraced partners from civil society,
the private sector, the UN and other humanitarian organizations,
as well as National Societies from other continents. It was
seen as a turning point.
In Mohammed’s view: “We have created synergies
with UN agencies such as the World Food Programme on food
provision, WHO on health and UNICEF on other humanitarian
issues.” She believes the private sector has also “woken
up” and realized that it has a role to play as,ultimately,
business relies on the same communities we work with”.
Nestle, DHL and Unilever are among the multinational corporations
now actively supporting National Societies in Africa. For
example, Nestle supports the Kenya Red Cross Society’s
HIV/ AIDS peer education and workplace programmes. In turn,
the Red Cross helps Nestle to implement an HIV/AIDS workplace
programme for its own staff.
As always, the vast network of local volunteers is the unique
strength of African National Societies. Volunteers, drawn
from the communities they serve, are increasingly taking full
ownership of community projects.For the Movement, only boldness
can provide the way forward.
As International Federation President Juan Manuel Suárez
del Toro wrote two years ago (Southern Africa’s Axis
of Evils, June 2003): “What is happening is unprecedented,
and doing business as usual will not halt it. The humanitarian
world is deep in uncharted territory, and the map from the
past will not guide us through the future. No one knows what
really lies ahead…”
Ten-year-old Dumisani Mhlongo working in the
vegetable garden that now represents the family’s only
source of income. In times of drought the South African Red
Cross Society supports families such as his with seeds, fertilizer
and other necessities.
Tapiwa Gomo is International Federation senior regional
information officer at the regional delegation in Harare
“HIV is not
Jane Dlamini insists the support she gets from the Swaziland
Red Cross health centre at Sigombeni has helped keep her alive
since she found out she was HIV-positive. Jane has become
a symbol of hope ever since the fateful test. She is a member
of a local support group providing counselling to other clients
in a community where stigma is still intense.
“I was in and out of the hospital, but after I got
counselling from the Red Cross clinic it dawned on me that
having HIV is not the end, but even the beginning of a new
“I am currently on ART. I got some seeds for my 100-square-metre
garden. We also work on the communal gardens in our chiefdom,
which helps feed both home-care clients and orphans.
“For me, the most important thing is to be able to
provide food for my children, give them love and ensure they
go to school until they are old enough to look after themselves.
“Through this Red Cross project we are able to cater
for orphans and help guardians, especially the elderly, by
making food available for children.
“Children whose mothers and fathers are part of the
project also have something to fall back on when their parents